APS Resources

Accessible Pedestrian Signals
Resources & References


Barlow, J.M. (2009). Common Problems Arising in the Installation of Accessible Pedestrian Signals.  Washington, D.C.: U.S. Access Board.

Harkey, D.L., Carter, D.L., Barlow, J.M. and Bentzen, B.L. (2007) Accessible Pedestrian Signals: A Guide to Best Practice. NCHRP Web-Only Document 117A.

Also available at www.apsguide.org

Harkey, D.L., Carter, D.L., Barlow, J.M., Bentzen, B.L., Myers, L. and Scott, A. (2007) Guidelines for Accessible Pedestrian Signals, Final Report. Contractor’s Final Report for NCHRP Project 3-62, NCHRP Web-Only Document 117B.

The blind community and the city of San Francisco signed a historic agreement on APS in 2007.  The following resources are available on Lainey Feingold’s website:
San Francisco APS Technical Specifications
San Francisco full APS agreement
Press release announcing the San Francisco Agreement


 

Access Board (2011) Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way.  (July 26, 2011) Washington, D.C.: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

Access Board.  (2005) Draft Public Rights-of-Way Accessibility Guidelines (November 23, 2005). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

Access Board, 2001. Building a true community: Final report, Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee, Washington, D.C. U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

Ashmead, D.H., Wall, R.S., Bentzen, B.L., & Barlow, J. M. (2004). Which crosswalk?  Effects of accessible pedestrian signal characteristics. ITE Journal, 74-9, 26-31:

Barlow, J.M., Franck, L., Bentzen, B.L. and Sauerburger, D. (2001). Pedestrian clearance intervals at modern intersections: Implications for the safety of pedestrians who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness. 95, 663-667.

Barlow, J. M., Bentzen, B.L., Bond, T. and Gubbe, D. (2006) Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Effect on Safety and Independence of Pedestrians who are Blind. Transportation Research Board 85th annual meeting compendium of papers. CD-Rom, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

Barlow, J.M., and Franck, L. (2005)  Crossroads: Modern Interactive Intersections and Accessible Pedestrian Signals.  Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness. Vol 99, (10), 599-610.

Barlow, J.M., Bentzen, B.L. and Bond, T. (2005) Blind pedestrians and the changing technology and geometry of signalized intersections: Safety, orientation and independence. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness.  Vol. 99, (10),587-598.

Barlow, J.M., Scott, A.C., Bentzen, B.L. (2009) Audible Beaconing with Accessible Pedestrian Signals.  AER Journal: Research and Practice in Visual Impairment and Blindness, Vol. 2, Number 4, 149 – 158. [NIHMS167632]

Bentzen, B.L., Barlow, J.M. & Franck, L. (2002) Determining Recommended Language for Speech Messages used by Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Institute of Transportation Engineers

Bentzen, B.L., Barlow, J.M. and Franck, L. (2000). Addressing barriers to blind pedestrians at signalized intersections. ITE Journal. 70-9, 32-35.

Bentzen, B.L., Barlow, J.M., and Gubbé, D. (2000). Locator tones for pedestrian signals. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1705, pp. 40-42.

Bentzen, B.L., Crandall, W.F., and Myers, L. (1999) Wayfinding system for transportation services: Remote infrared audible signage for transit stations, surface transit, and intersections. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1671, pp. 19-26.

Bentzen, B.L., Barlow, J.M. and Franck, L. (2004). Speech Messages for Accessible Pedestrian Signals. ITE Journal, 74-9, 20-24.

Bentzen, B.L., Barlow, J.M. & Bond, T. (2004). Challenges of Unfamiliar Signalized Intersections for Pedestrians who are Blind: Research on Safety. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 187851 -57.

Bentzen, B.L., Scott, A.C., and Barlow, J.M. (2006) Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Effect of Device Features.  Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1982, pp. 30-37.

Brabyn, J.A., Haegerström-Portnoy, G, Schneck, M.E. & Lott, L.A. (2000). Visual impairments in elderly people under everyday viewing conditions. Journal of visual impairment and blindness. 94: 741-755.

Carroll, J. & Bentzen, B.L. (1999). American Council of the Blind survey of intersection accessibility. The Braille Forum 38, 11-15.

Carter, D.L., Harkey, D.L., Bentzen, B.L., and Barlow, J.M.  (2006).  Development of an intersection prioritization tool for accessible pedestrian signal installation.  Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1982, pp. 13-20.

Crandall, W.; Bentzen, B.L. & Myers, L. (1998) Remote Signage development to address current and emerging access problems for blind individuals. Part I. Smith-Kettlewell research on the use of Talking Signs® at light controlled street crossings. Report to National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

Crandall, W., Bentzen, B.L., Myers, L., and Brabyn, J. (2001) New orientation and accessibility option for persons with visual impairment: transportation applications for remote infrared audible signage. Clinical and Experimental Optometry. 84,

Easter Seals Project ACTION (2003).  Accessible Pedestrian Signals: A Curriculum Development Project, Draft Final Report.  Washington, D.C.: Project ACTION.

Federal Highway Administration. (2009). Manual on uniform traffic control devices for streets and highways. Washington, D.C.: Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Federal Highway Administration. (2004). Accessible Sidewalks and Street Crossings – an informational guide.  Washington, D.C.: Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Gallagher, B., Montes de Oca, P. Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections. (1998) Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 92, 633-646.

Hall, G., Rabelle, A. & Zabihaylo, C. (1994). Audible traffic signals: A new definition. Montreal: Montreal Association for the Blind.

Harkey, D.L., Carter, D.L., Barlow, J.M., Bentzen, B.L., Myers, L. and Scott, A. (2007) Guidelines for Accessible Pedestrian Signals, Final Report. Contractor’s Final Report for NCHRP Project 3-62, NCHRP Web-Only Document 117B.

Harkey, D.L., Carter, D.L., Barlow, J.M. and Bentzen, B.L. (2007) Accessible Pedestrian Signals: A Guide to Best Practice. NCHRP Web-Only Document 117A.

Hulscher, F. (1976). Traffic signal facilities for blind pedestrians. Australian Road Research Board Proceedings 8, 13-26.

Murakami, T., Ishikawa, M., Ohkura, M., Sawai, H., Takato, J. and Tauchi, M. (1998). Identification of difficulties of the independent blind travelers to cross intersection with/without audible traffic signals. Proceedings: The 9th International Mobility Conference, Atlanta, GA.

Noyce, D.A. and Barlow, J.M. (2003).  Interfacing Accessible Pedestrian Signals with Traffic Signal Control Equipment Washington, D.C.: U.S. Access Board.

Oliver, M.B., Feagan, J.C., and Ardeliani, S.A. (1990) Audible Pedestrian Signals – Current Practices and Future Needs. ITE Journal 60(6) 35-38.

San Diego Association of Governments. Evaluation of audible pedestrian traffic signals. San Diego Association of Governments, 1988.

Scott, A.C., Barlow, J.M., Guth, D.A., Bentzen, B.L., Cunningham, C.M., & Long, R. (2011) Walking between the lines: Nonvisual cues for maintaining heading during street crossings. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 662 – 674.

Scott, A.C., Myers, L., Barlow, J.M., and Bentzen, B.L. (2005) Accessible pedestrian signals: The effect of pushbutton location and audible WALK indications on pedestrian behavior. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1939, 69-76.

Szeto, A.Y.J. and Valerio, N.C., “Characteristics and Usage of Audible Pedestrian Traffic Signals,” Proc. 5th Ann. Conf. Technology and Persons with Disabilities, March 1990, pp. 665-682.

Szeto, A.Y.J., Valerio, N. and Novak, R., (1991) “Audible Pedestrian Traffic Signals: Prevalence and Impact,” Journal of Rehabilitation R & D, 28(2):57-64.

Szeto, A.Y.J., Valerio, N. and Novak, R.,(1991)  “Audible Pedestrian Traffic Signals: Analysis of Sounds Emitted,” Journal of Rehabilitation R & D, 28(2):65-70.

Szeto, A.Y.J., Valerio, N. and Novak, R., (1991) “Audible Pedestrian Traffic Signals: Detectability,” Journal of Rehabilitation R & D, 28(2):71-78.

Uslan, M.M., Peck, A.F. and Waddell, W. (1985). Audible traffic signals: How useful are they? ITE Journal, pp. 37-43.

Van Houten, R., Malenfant, J., Van Houten, J. & Retting, R. (1997).Using auditory pedestrian signals to reduce pedestrian and vehicle conflicts. Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No.1578. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

U.S. Department of Justice. (2010). 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1994). ADA Standards for Accessible Design. 28 CFR PART 36. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.

Wall, R.S., Ashmead, D.H., Bentzen, B.L., & Barlow, J. (2004).  Directional guidance from audible pedestrian signals for street crossing.  Ergonomics. Vol. 47, (12), 1318 – 1338.

Williams, M. D., Van Houten, R., Ferraro, J., and Blasch, B. (2005). Field comparison of two types of accessible pedestrian signals. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research BoardNo. 1939, 91-98.

Wiener, W. R., Lawson, G., Naghshineh, K., Brown, J., Bischoff, A., & Toth, A. (1997). The use of traffic sounds to make street crossings by persons who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91, 435-445.